The Battle of Blair Mountain

Here is an excellent note from Congressman Alan Grayson (D-Orlando] that shines a light on a little-known part of our nation’s history:

“This weekend marks the anniversary of the most brutal confrontation in the history of the American labor movement, the Battle of Blair Mountain. For one week during 1921, armed, striking coal miners battled scabs, a private militia, police officers and the US Army. 100 people died, 1,000 were arrested, and one million shots were fired. It was the largest armed rebellion in America since the Civil War.

This is how it happened. In the Twenties, West Virginia coal miners lived in “company towns.” The mining companies owned all the property. They literally ran union organizers out of town – or killed them.

In 1912, in a strike at Paint Creek, the mining company forced the striking miners and their families out of their homes, to live in tents. Then they sent armed goons into that tent city, and opened fire on men, women and children there with a machine gun.

By 1920, the United Mine Workers had organized the northern mines in West Virginia, but they were barred from the southern mines. When southern miners tried to join the union, they were fired and evicted. To show who was boss, one mining company tried to place machine guns on the roofs of buildings in town.

In Matewan, when the coal company goons came to town to take it upon themselves to enforce eviction notices, the mayor and the sheriff asked them to leave. The goons refused. Incredibly, the goons tried to arrest the sheriff, Sheriff Hatfield. Shots were fired, and the mayor and nine others were killed. But the company goons had to flee.

The government sided with the coal companies, and put Sheriff Hatfield on trial for murder. The jury acquitted him. Then they put the sheriff on trial for supposedly dynamiting a non-union mine. As the sheriff walked up the courthouse steps to stand trial again, unarmed, company goons shot him in cold blood. In front of his wife.

This led to open confrontations between miners on one hand, and police and company goons on the other. 13,000 armed miners assembled, and marched on the southern mines in Logan and Mingo Counties. They confronted a private militia of 2,000, hired by the coal companies.

President Harding was informed. He threatened to send in troops and even bombers to break the union. Many miners turned back, but then company goons started killing unarmed union men, and some armed miners pushed on. The militia attacked armed miners, and the coal companies hired airplanes to drop bombs on them. The US Army Air Force, as it was known then, observed the miners’ positions from overhead, and passed that information on to the coal companies.

The miners actually broke through the militia’s defensive perimeter, but after five days, the US Army intervened, and the miners stood down. By that time, 100 people were dead. Almost a thousand miners then were indicted for murder and treason. No one on the side of the coal companies was ever held accountable.

The Battle of Blair Mountain showed that the miners could not defeat the coal companies and the government in battle. But then something interesting happened: the miners defeated the coal companies and the government at the ballot box. In 1925, convicted miners were paroled. In 1932, Democrats won both the State House and the White House. In 1935, President Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act. Eleven years after the Battle of Blair Mountain, the United Mine Workers organized the southern coal fields in West Virginia.

The Battle of Blair Mountain did not have a happy ending for Sheriff Hatfield, or his wife, or the 100 men, women and children who died, or the hundreds who were injured, or the thousands who lost their jobs. But it did have a happy ending for the right to organize, and the middle class, and America.

Now let me ask you one thing: had you ever heard of this landmark event in American history, the Battle of Blair Mountain, before you read this? And if not, then why not? Think about that.”

Alan Grayson

I wish to extend my thanks to Congressman Grayson for allowing me to republish his article verbatim. Let’s remember the courage and sacrifice of these miners as we celebrate Labor Day this weekend.

Stay safe, my brothers.

Related articles:

  8 comments for “The Battle of Blair Mountain

  1. May 12, 2019 at 6:05 AM

    Hi Allan – not sure why I got this post when I clicked on your name today but am glad I did. Never heard of this story and found it incredible. Hard to imagine such a thing happening in the US. Such a sad story.

    Liked by 1 person

    • May 12, 2019 at 10:51 AM

      Thanks for your comment, Tina. i made this a sticky post last week and that might be a reason why it popped up for you. I’m going to replace it with another sticky post later today.

      As for the story—yes, it is a sad day in our history.


  2. history person
    August 28, 2013 at 3:16 PM

    Wow lots of interesting facts!


  3. August 30, 2012 at 3:55 PM

    There’s an excellent little book I picked up around six months ago called, “Gun Thugs, Rednecks, and Radicals,” edited by David Corbin. It is about the mine wars described in your piece. It goes all the way back to the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike of 1912.
    Aside from the men and women who died in the Battle of Blair Mountain, the company men loaded themselves up into a train that passed through the mine camps, and around dinner-time one night, they fired their rifles (and even a Gatling Gun) randomly at the tents and hovels of the miners, regardless of whether or not women and children were around.
    You’ll notice the sign above says that the miners’ organizing activities were stopped until 1933. If F.D.R. hadn’t come along, they might have been stopped permanently.
    Excellent post,


    • August 30, 2012 at 5:28 PM

      Thanks for joining in, Bill. You are on target and on time once again. I am unfamiliar with David Corbin, but I will keep a look out for his book. I am always happy to learn new things.

      As I was putting this post together I could not help but think about the TV series on FX, Justified. It takes place in Harlan County, Kentucky and deals with some of these same issues.

      Have a safe holiday,


  4. August 30, 2012 at 1:53 PM

    This Was Really Interesting, Allan. A Piece Of History I Was Unaware Of. Pretty Cool, Sir.


    • August 30, 2012 at 3:15 PM

      I did not get this in History class either. Have a safe holiday and enjoy those kitties.



Questions? Comments? Let's talk...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: